On June 14, 1957, at Eisenhower`s proposal, the Soviet Union presented a plan for a two- to three-year moratorium on compliance detection measures. The moratorium would be overseen by an international commission that needs national monitoring posts, but what is important would not include on-site inspections. Eisenhower initially saw the agreement favorably, but eventually saw something else. In particular, Strauss and Teller as well as Ernest Lawrence and Mark Muir Mills protested against the offer. In a meeting with Eisenhower at the White House, the group argued that tests were needed for the United States to eventually develop bombs that do not produce fallout („clean bombs”). The group repeated the often quoted fact, supported by Freeman Dyson[39] that the Soviet Union could conduct secret nuclear tests. [40] In 1958, at the request of Igor Kurchatov, Soviet physicist and weapons designer Andrei Sakharov published a widely used scientific work in which he questioned Teller`s and others`s assertion that the formation of carbon-14 would allow the development of a clean, fall-free atomic bomb when nuclear equipment was detonated in the air. A clean bomb with a megaton, Sakharov estimated, would be responsible for 6,600 deaths over 8,000 years, figures largely derived from estimates of the amount of carbon-14 from atmospheric nitrogen and current risk models at the time, along with the assumption that the world`s population would reach „thirty billion people” in a few thousand years. [42] In 1961, Sakharov was part of the design team for a 50-megaton „clean bomb” known as Tsar Bomba, which exploded over the island of Novaya Semlja.

[43] The treaty states that its „primary objective is to reach a general and comprehensive disarmament agreement under strict international control as soon as possible” and explicitly states the objective of a total ban on testing (an agreement prohibiting underground testing). The treaty permanently prohibits contracting parties from carrying out, allowing or operating nuclear explosions in the atmosphere, space or submarine, as well as „any other nuclear explosion” that threatens to send nuclear debris into the territory of another state. [169] The term „any other nuclear explosion” prohibited peaceful nuclear explosions, as it was difficult to distinguish them from military tests without enhanced inspection measures. [2] The PTBT was the first in a series of nuclear arms control treaties in the second half of the 20th century. The PTBT is seen as a stepping stone to the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which explicitly highlighted the progress of the PTBT. [64] In addition to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the PTBT followed in ten years by the Space Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty in 1967, the Tlatelolco Treaty in 1971 and the Ballistic Missile Treaty in 1972. [181] In 1974, the Threshold Test Ban Treaty banned underground testing with yields of more than 150 kilograms. [179] [182] The origins of the treaty were in global public concern about the risk of atmospheric radioactive failure due to surface nuclear weapons testing.

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